Monday, February 28

Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage

Mary Georgiana Caroline, Lady Filmer (English, 1838–1903)
"Most often, our special exhibitions highlight important aspects of the Met's collection or explore areas of curatorial expertise, but occasionally they give us the chance, instead, to present a type of work that's entirely absent from the collection. Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage is one such instance."
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYT - The Pastime of Victorian Cutups, YouTube - Women's Work: Albums and Their Makers


"Swoon is a street artist originally from Daytona Beach, Florida. She moved to New York City at age nineteen, and specializes in life-size wheatpaste prints and paper cutouts of figures. Swoon, real name Caledonia Dance Curry, studied painting at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and started doing street art around 1999."
Wikipedia, gothamist, SWOON, YouTube - Walrus TV Artist Feature: Swoon Interview from "The Run Up" , Swoon presenting her work at MoMA, (Part 1 of 2), (Part 2 of 2)

Hand Catching Lead (1968) - Richard Serra

"1968's Hand Catching Lead was Serra's first film (youtube will try and tell you it was made in 1971, but that's youtube). Serra claims it was an attempt to break into the 'intimidating' medium of film, inspired by the 'great freedom' he saw expressed in Warhol's work and the 'tentative, experimental' nature of films like Yvonne Rainer's Hand Movie and Line."

Sunday, February 27

‘A Vanguard of Friends’ - Dan Chiasson

Jane Freilicher: The Painting Table, 1954
"Tibor de Nagy, the iconic midtown gallery, has been celebrating its sixtieth anniversary with a show that doesn’t so much trace its history as distill its early essence. 'Painters & Poets' includes drawings, chapbooks, letters and well-known paintings that emerged from the fantastic collaborations between Frank O’Hara and Larry Rivers, O’Hara and Joe Brainard, Brainard and John Ashbery, James Schuyler and Grace Hartigan, among many others."
NYR Blog

"Adios Nonino" - Astor Piazzolla

"It's useless to understand the somber poetry nestled beneath these melodies thirsty of calm and hope whose sleepless inspiration always searches elusive roots, he is the son of immigrants who desperately left their native lands and never returned, so this genetic heritage makes the Argentinean gazes America with European lenses, loaded of a devouring blend of nostalgia and homesickness that never finds shelter. Let these sounds convey you to unknown landscapes and unexplored horizons, due the tango is the loyal swan's song and inseparable partnership of a never-ending journey. - Hiram Gomez Pardo"
amazon, YouTube - "Adios Nonino"

Betye Saar

Record for Hattie, 1974
Wikipedia - "Betye Irene Saar (July 30, 1926 in Los Angeles, California) is an American artist, known for her work in the field of assemblage. ... In the late 1960s Saar began collecting images of Aunt Jemima, Uncle Tom, Little Black Sambo, and other stereotyped African American figures from folk culture and advertising. She incorporated them into collages and assemblages, transforming them into statements of political and social protest."
Wikipedia, Betye Saar, npr - "Life Is a Collage for Artist Betye Saar", YouTube - Racism - Part 1, Part 2, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, The Resurrection of Aunt Jemima, The Influence of the African Diaspora, Artistic Style

Saturday, February 26

Different Trains (1988) - Steve Reich

Wikipedia - "Different Trains is a three-movement piece for string quartet and tape written by Steve Reich in 1988. ... The work's three movements have the following titles: America-Before the War (movement 1), Europe-During the War (movement 2), After the War (movement 3). During the war years, Reich made train journeys between New York and Los Angeles to visit his parents, who had separated. Years later, he pondered the fact that, as a Jew, had he been in Europe instead of the United States at that time, he might have been travelling in Holocaust trains."
Wikipedia, amazon, Literature of the Holocaust
vimeo: Different Trains part 1-America before the war, part 2-Europe during the war, Different Trains part 3-America after the war
Neil Haydock: different trains - part one (Video), part 2, part 3, part 4

Brion Gysin exhibition ‘Alarm’ in Paris at Galerie de France

William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin, The Third Mind, 1965
"‘Alarm’, a new Brion Gysin exhibition in Paris at Galerie de France opened on 19th February and runs until 02 April 2011. La Galerie de France was one of the private galleries that supported and exhibited Brion Gysin’s work during his life time. This exhibition features works from private collections."
Brion Gysin - Video

Robert Grenier

Wikipedia - "Robert Grenier (born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on August 4, 1941– ) is a contemporary American poet associated with the Language School. He was founding co-editor (with Barrett Watten) of the influential magazine This (1971–1974). This was a watershed moment in the history of recent American poetry, providing one of the first gatherings in print of various writers, artists, and poets now identified (or loosely referred to) as the Language poets."
Wikipedia, EPC, Review: Robert Grenier – 64 (The Irony of Flatness, Bury Art Gallery, 19 July – 8 November), Robert Grenier: A Survey, CAPITALIZATION in Grenier's Series: Poems 1967-1971, SENTENCES. Robert Grenier.

Friday, February 25

A Stanley Kubrick Odyssey - A Tribute

"We received an email earlier this week from Richard Vezina to let us know about a rather impressive homage he's put together celebrating the work of the late, great Stanley Kubrick. Described as a 'visual-analysis', the 13-minute video juxtaposes imagery from all of the director's films (barring Spartacus, which Richard doesn't consider to be an original Kubrick movie), and really is an exceptional tribute to the legendary filmmaker and his unique visual talents."
Flickering Myth

September 2010: 2001: Space Odyssey
May 2009: Stanley Kubrick

The Aggrovators

Wikipedia - "The Aggrovators were a dub/reggae backing band in the 1970s & 1980s, and one of the main session bands of producer, Bunny Lee. The line-up varied, with Lee using the name for whichever set of musicians he was using at any time. The band's name derived from the record shop that Lee had run in the late 1960s, Agro Sounds. Alumni of the band included many musicians who later went to make names for themselves in reggae music. Legends such as Jackie Mittoo, Sly and Robbie, Tommy McCook, and Aston Barrett were all involved with the band at one point or another."
Wikipedia, YouTube - Ten Pieces In One, Sun Is Shining Dub, Jah Jah Dub, Doctor Seaton, Take Five, Blood Version, A Natty Version

Thursday, February 24

Talking Union and Other Union Songs - The Almanac Singer

"Pete Seeger, in a conversation with Tim Robbins for Pacifica Radio (2006), talks about The Almanac Singer, Woody Guthrie, Lee Hays, John Handcox, Theodore Dreiser, Alan Lomax, Millard Lampell, raising money for records (Songs for John Doe), The Daily Worker, Folkways reissue of 'Talking Union' with additional recordings by The Songswappers (including Mary Travers, Erik Darling), Hitler, Stalin, Churchill, Truman etc., and sings (parts of) 'Why Do You Stand There In The Rain?' and 'The Strange Death of John Doe' (model for Bob Dylan's 'Man On The Street')."
YouTube - The Almanac Singers, Smithsonian Institution - Talking Union and Other Union Songs, I Don't Want Your Millions (Almanac Singers.), Talking Union, Pete Seeger & Arlo Guthrie - Union Maid, Pete Seeger - Which side are you on, Pete Seeger - We shall not be moved, Almanac Singers - Roll The Union On, Bucky Halker - Casey Jones, the Union Scab, Miners Lifeguard (Wilsons), Pete Seeger & The Weavers - Solidarity Forever

The Tower

Wikipedia - "The Tower (XVI) (most common modern name) is the sixteenth trump or Major Arcana card in most cartomancy Tarot decks. It is not used as part of any game."

La Seine

A walkway along the Right Bank near the Tuileries
Wikipedia - "The Seine (French: La Seine, pronounced: [la sɛn]) is a major river and commercial waterway within the regions of the Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie in France."
Wikipedia, Paris History: La Seine, YouTube - The Seine, Paris, La Seine à Paris

Wednesday, February 23

On Line

"Drawing conventionally has been associated with pen, pencil, and paper, but artists have drawn lines on walls, earth, ceramics, fabric, film, and computer screens, with tools ranging from sticks to scrapers to pixels. Looking beyond institutional definitions of the medium, On Line ... argues for an expanded history of drawing that moves off the page into space and time."

Selling Water By the Side of the River - Evan Lurie

"His first solo album, Selling Water by the Side of the River was released in 1990, during a hiatus from the Lounge Lizards. The album, which showcases Lurie's compositional skills, consists of classically-inflected chamber pieces featuring Alfredo Pedernera on bandoneon and Marc Ribot on guitar. ... ~ Matthew Carlin, Rovi"
YouTube, amazon, YouTube - Evan Lurie : Spinster's Waltz, Rintrah Roars, Terraces, The orderly retreat

Tuesday, February 22

Slinger - Edward Dorn

"Dorn's high-spirited, crazy-quilt, complex anti-epic is a masterful critique of late twentieth-century capitalism and is one of the great comic poems of American literature. Dorn is one of the few political poets in America; this fantasy about a demigod cowboy, a saloon madam, and a talking horse named Claude Levi-Strauss, who travel the Southwest in search of Howard Hughes, as become a minor classic."
amazon, Jacket 23# - Edward Dorn: A World of Difference, by Tom Clark, Google - "Art Rising to Clarity: Edward Dorn's Compleat Slinger" by William J. Lockwood, Edward Dorn: Gunslinger Book 1......Podcast of opening lines read by Ed Dorn at bottom of blog, Chicago Poetry - "INTERVIEW WITH ED DORN" by Effie Mihopoulos, gary brower gunslinger in new mexico: for ed dorn (1929-1999)


Wikipedia - "MARRS (stylised MARRS on logo) was a 1987 one-off recording act formed by the groups A.R. Kane and Colourbox which only released one commercial disc. It became 'a one-hit wonder of rare influence' because of their international hit 'Pump Up the Volume', considered the first UK number one to contain samples from other songs, and nominated for a Grammy Award in 1989."
Wikipedia, W - Pump Up the Volume (song), YouTube - M.A.R.S. - Pump Up The Volume, MARRS - Pump Up The Volume [Radio Edit]

Monday, February 21

Christian Marclay: The Clock

"'The Clock' is constructed out of moments in cinema when time is expressed or when a character interacts with a clock, watch or just a particular time of day. Marclay has excerpted thousands of these fragments and edited them so that they flow in real time. While 'The Clock' examines how time, plot and duration are depicted in cinema, the video is also a working timepiece that is synchronised to the local time zone."
White Cube, Huffington Post, Artinfo, NYT, Paula Cooper Gallery, YouTube

The Social Network

"They all laughed at college nerd Mark Zuckerberg, whose idea for a social-networking site made him a billionaire. And they all laughed at the idea of a Facebook movie--except writer Aaron Sorkin and director David Fincher, merely two of the more extravagantly talented filmmakers around. Sorkin and Fincher's breathless picture, The Social Network, is a fast and witty creation myth about how Facebook grew from Zuckerberg's insecure geek-at-Harvard days into a phenomenon with 500 million users."
amazon, YouTube - The Social Network, YouTube - New York Film Festival, 1 of 5, 2 0f 5, 3 of 5, 4 of 5, 5 of 5

Hugo Keesing

"Hugo Keesing is a teacher and a pop music archivist. I'm not sure he'd refer to himself as an artist (I didn't ask him), but he did produce a piece of work called Chartsweep, which many of us who listen to sound collage couldn't help but think of as art."

Sunday, February 20

The Blues Accordin’ to Lightnin’ Hopkins

"A 1967 Les Blank film of Lightnin Hopkins visiting his hometown of Centerville, TX '…a gorgeous 31-minute poem of a movie, a series of snapshots from his life as well as a look at an era fast disappearing…Watching the film is something of a revelation, at least if you ever had a doubt where the blues came from.'"
Metafilter, Classic Blues Videos/YouTube - Blues Documentaries


"Faith47 is a painter and street artist known best for the giant murals that adorn the city of Cape Town."
Wooster Collective

Bernarda Bryson Shahn

Wikipedia - "Bernarda Bryson Shahn (March 9, 1903 – December 13, 2004) was an American painter, lithographer and widow of renowned artist Ben Shahn, who wrote and illustrated children's books including 'The Zoo of Zeus' and 'Gilgamesh.' She met her future husband during a trip to New York in 1932. Both of them worked for the Depression-era Resettlement Administration, later part of the Farm Security Administration."
Wikipedia, The Visual Literature of Bernarda Bryson-Shahn: Developing a Social Conscience, Google

Saturday, February 19

Plight & Premonition - David Sylvian & Holger Czukay

"On Holger's invitation David spent a few nights working in Can studio with the legendary bass player which saw the production of this evocative album. Two long form, drone-based, instrumental compositions, this album has remained a firm favourite of David's. Originally released in March 1988 David produced a remix of the entire album as a bonus CD with the instrumental compilation 'Camphor'."
David Sylvian,, Youtube - Premonition (Giant Empty Iron Vessels 1988), The spiralling of winter ghosts

Jones Beach

Wikipedia - "The park is renowned for its great beaches, 10 mi (13.5 km) in length, facing the open Atlantic Ocean and furnishes one of the most popular summer recreational locations for the New York metropolitan area. It is the most popular and heavily visited beach on the East Coast, with an estimated six million visitors per year." Jones Beach: 1955-1970.
Wikipedia, Jones Beach, YouTube - Jones Beach

Soulsonic Force

Wikipedia - "The Soulsonic Force (also referred to as Afrika Bambaataa & the Soulsonic Force) are an American electro-funk and hip-hop ensemble led by Afrika Bambaataa who helped establish hip-hop in the early 1980s with songs such as 'Planet Rock'. They were also influential in the birth of the electro movement in America and helped pave the way for modern dance music styles such as electro-funk and electro-hop."
Wikipedia, YouTube - Soul Sonic Force-Renegades Of Funk, Afrika Bambaataa - Looking for the Perfect Beat, Afrika Bambaataa - Planet Rock, Soul Sonic Force Rap in 1979 or 1980?, Grandmaster Flash & The 4 MCs " 12/23/1978 (Part 1/3), (Part 2/3), (Part 3/3)

Friday, February 18

Empire - Social networks, social revolution

"Youtube, Facebook and Twitter have become the new weapons of mass mobilisation. Are social networks triggering social revolution? And where will the next domino fall?"

The Unemployed Philosophers Guild

"We came into being in the last decades of the 20th century, when two brothers found their inner creativity in the midst of a dwindling academic job market. It turned out that making smart, funny things proved to be almost as satisfying as probing eternal questions (alright, maybe not quite). Although we still contemplate truth and justice, it is our enduring goal to fulfill the materialistic desires of the funny and sophisticated everywhere!"
The Nation - The Unemployed Philosophers Guild

Vermeer: Master of Light

Woman Holding a Balance – (c. 1665)
"This segment analyzes the National Gallery's painting Woman Holding a Balance. With the help of special effects we are able to understand Vermeer's construction of the painting and his complete control of the work."
YouTube - Vermeer: Master of Light 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5, 5/5

Thursday, February 17

Patti Smith - Horses & Hey joe

"Patti Smith in 1976."

Soviet Posters

"With the Russian Revolution of 1917, for the first time in history an entire nation is governed by a communist system. The posters from the first years of this government show revolutionary zeal and optimism of building a new society. Campaigns are waged to eliminate illiteracy and improve health care. Other posters attack the opponents of Lenin's government: a bloody civil war swept the country until 1920. Progressive artists use the poster as a medium to reach a broad public. As far as style is concerned, they do not have to cope with artistic directives yet."
International Institute of Social History

History of Hip-Hop Vol. 7: 1985

"Run DMC – Together Forever (Krush Groove 4)
LL Cool J – I Can’t Live Without My Radio
Steady B – Just Call Us Def
Superkids – The Tragedy (Don’t Do It)
The Treacherous Three – Turn it Up
Toddy Tee – The Batterram
Kurtis Blow – If I Ruled The World
Mantronix – Fresh Is The Word- feat. MC Tee
Marley Marl – Marley Scratch- feat. MC Shan
Stetsasonic – Just Say Stet
Run DMC – King Of Rock
Jazzy Jay – Cold Chillin In The Spot
Schoolly D – PSK
Supernature – The Show Stoppa (It’s Supa Fresh)
The B-Boys – Girls (Pt. 2)
Bad Boys feat. K-Love – Veronica
Cutmaster DC – Brooklyn’s In The House
Grandmaster Flash – Larry’s Dance Theme
Doug E. Fresh & Slick Rick – The Show
Tricky Tee – Johnny The Fox
Sparky D – Sparky’s Turn (Roxanne You’re Through)
Korner Boyz – It’s On (Jazzy Jeff Scratch)
Run DMC – Darryl & Joe (Krush Groove 3)
Roxanne Shante – Bite This
Whistle – Nothing serial (We’re Only Buggin’)
Word Of Mouth feat. DJ Cheese – King Kut
Rockmaster Scott & The Dynamic Three – Request Line
Masterdon Committee – Funkbox Party 2
Rockmaster Scott & The Dynamic Three – The Roof Is On Fire
Egyptian Lover – Computer Love
LL Cool J – That’s A Lie"
The Run

Wednesday, February 16

Czechoslovakian Registered Cover from 1962

"My first blog post for sometime here on Footyphila and I've got a beautiful cover to share with you all. It satisfies my inner stamp collecting nerd like you've never known. Why? Well it's registered for starters and I do like examples of my main thematic interests on a nice registered cover."
Footyphila Plus

Son House

Wikipedia -"Eddie James 'Son' House, Jr. (March 21, 1902 (?)– October 19, 1988) was an American blues singer and guitarist. House pioneered an innovative style featuring strong, repetitive rhythms, often played with the aid of slide guitar, and his singing often incorporated elements of southern gospel and spiritual music."
Wikiedia,, YouTube - Death Letter Blues, Forever on my Mind, Levee Camp Blues, Grinnin' In Your Face (with spoken intro), John the Revelator

Kenward Elmslie's poem songs

"In the 1950's Kenward Elmslie was the protege of the well-known lyricist John Latouche, who had worked with Duke Ellington and many others. Elmslie, at times uncredited, helped Latouche with such chores as writing a lyric for Leonard Bernstein's theme to On the Waterfront, and songs for on and off-Broadway revues."
PERFECT SOUND FOREVER, Fifteen from 1984: Gay History Week 15: Kenward Elmslie, YouTube - Stayin dry

April 2008: Kenward Elmslie, PENNSOUND, Jacket #7, Wikipedia

Tuesday, February 15

Sandinista! - The Clash

Wikipedia - "Sandinista! is the fourth studio album by the English punk rock band The Clash. It was released on 12 December 1980 as a triple album containing 36 tracks, with 6 songs on each side. Anticipating the 'world music' trend of the 1980s, it features reggae, jazz, mock gospel, rockabilly, folk, dub, rhythm and blues, calypso, and rap."
Wikipedia, amazon, YouTube - Charlie Don't Surf, Brand New Cadillac, Armagideon Time, One More Time & Dub, The Call Up, Sound of the Sinners, The Magnificent Seven (1 0f 3), Interview - Jun 1981 (2 of 3), This Is Radio Clash - Jun 1981 (3 of 3), Up in Heaven (not only here), Rebel Waltz, Police On My Back, Somebody Got Murdered

The ABC's of DADA

"The Dada movement was a protest against the barbarism of World War I, the bourgeois interests that Dada adherents believed inspired the war, and what they believed was an oppressive intellectual rigidity in both art and everyday society. Dada was an international movement, and it is difficult to classify artists as being from any one particular country, as they were constantly moving from one place to another. ..."
YouTube - The ABC's of DADA (1 of 3), (2 of 3), (3 of 3)

All of this and nothing

Jorge Macchi, Vanishing Point, 2005
"All of this and nothing is the sixth in the Hammer Museum’s biennial invitational exhibition series, which highlights work of Los Angeles-based artists, both established and emerging, alongside a number of international artists."

Monday, February 14

Tom Johnson

Wikipedia - "American composer Tom Johnson (born November 18, 1939 in Greeley, Colorado), is one of the few composers to self-identify as minimalist; in fact, he coined the term while serving as the new music critic for the Village Voice. He has since collected these articles in the book The Voice of New Music which is available free through the external link below. He has lived in Paris since 1983."
Wikipedia, Continuo, YouTube - Nine Bells, Satz 7

Victoria Sambunaris

Yellowstone, 2008
"For most of my photographic life, my interest has been the landscape. I have journeyed extensively in my car throughout the northeast, down to the Rio Grande, through basin and range, across the western plains, down to the Salton Sea, into the Petrified Forrest, around the mines of Nevada."
Women in Photography, artnet, Yancey Richardson Gallery

Ernest Tubb

Wikipedia - "Ernest Dale Tubb (February 9, 1914 – September 6, 1984), nicknamed the Texas Troubadour, was an American singer and songwriter and one of the pioneers of country music. His biggest career hit song, 'Walking the Floor Over You' (1941), marked the rise of the honky tonk style of music."
Wikipedia, YouTube - Drivin' Nails in my Coffin, I'm Looking High And Low, When Jesus Calls, Will You Be Satisfied That Way, Thanks a Lot, I'll Step Aside

Sunday, February 13

Robert ParkeHarrison & Shana ParkeHarrison

Wikipedia - "Robert ParkeHarrison (born 1968) is a photographer, best known for his work (with wife Shana ParkeHarrison) in the area of fine art photography. The photographs of Robert and Shana ParkeHarrison have been displayed in 18 solo exhibitions and over 30 group shows worldwide."
Wikipedia, Robert ParkeHarrison & Shana ParkeHarrison, YouTube - Teresa Stratas, Youkali Tango from Marie Galante

Feeling from Mountain and Water

Wikipedia - "Feeling from Mountain and Water (Chinese: 山水情; Pinyin: shān shuǐ qíng) is a Chinese animated short film produced by Shanghai Animation Film Studio under the master animator Te Wei. It is also referred to as 'Love of Mountain and River', 'Feelings of Mountains and Waters'."
Wikipedia, SAW - Video

Saturday, February 12

Big Shots: Andy Warhol Polaroids

"Big Shots: Andy Warhol Polaroids provides insight into the artist who sought to capture the world like a camera. The exhibition includes about 250 Polaroids and 70 silver gelatin black-and-white prints taken by Warhol from 1970 to 1987, many of them on public view for the first time."
Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Weatherspoon, Imagine Peace, YouTube - Curator's Insights, One Step Big Shot

Yoshihide Otomo

Wikipedia - "Yoshihide Otomo (... born August 1, 1959 in Yokohama, Japan) is a Japanese composer and multi-instrumentalist. He first came to international prominence in the 1990s as the leader of the noise rock group Ground Zero, and has since worked in a variety of contexts, ranging from free improvisation to noise, jazz, avant-garde and contemporary classical. He is also a pioneering figure in the EAI-scene, and is featured on important records on labels like Erstwhile Records. He plays guitar, turntables, and electronics."
Wikipedia, Yoshihide Otomo, Interview by Jason Gross (May 1998), YouTube - The Many Moods Of Otomo Yoshihide, Guitar solo Tokyo 1994, Fred Frith & Otomo Yoshihide, Otomo Yoshihide & Tori Kudo, Ground-Zero

Millet and Rural France

Path Through the Wheat
"Jean-François Millet (1814–1875) is one of the great French artists of the 19th century. His images of rural life are among the most recognized and beloved in the history of art, and his innovative treatment of light and color anticipates Impressionism."
Boston Low Brow, MFA, Google

Friday, February 11


Wikipedia - "A cairn (carn in Irish, carnedd in Welsh, càrn in Scots Gaelic) is a man-made pile of stones, often in conical form. They are usually found in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, or near waterways."

Meredith Monk: A Voice For All Time

"When I think about Meredith Monk, I think of her alone, on a stage bereft of instruments or props or other people. Whether in a cavernous concert hall or in a tiny club, the vision of her lone self is dramatic. With a slight tilt of the head and a grounding of the body, she opens her mouth and begins to sing. In this simplest of actions, she reveals extraordinary power."
npr, amazon, Authentic Voice: An Interview with Meredith Monk, Bryn Mawr - Video, Text: Meredith Monk interviewed by Isla Leaver-Yap, facebook

Thursday, February 10

SHINDIG! - Legends of Rock & Roll

The Righteous Brothers - "KoKo Joe". Jerry Lee Lewis - "High School Confidential". Aretha Franklin - "Mockingbird". Tina Turner - "Goodbye, So Long". Bo Diddley - "Hey Bo Diddley". Little Anthony & The Imperials - "Hurt So Bad". Johnny Cash - "Orange Blossom Special". The Everly Brothers - "Wake Up Little Susie". Chuck Berry - "Back In The USA". James Brown - "Night Train".
YouTube - 1, 2, 3