Monday, April 3
Baseball color line
1949: Roy Campanella, Larry Doby, Don Newcombe, Jackie Robinson
Wikipedia - "The color line in American baseball, until the late 1940s, excluded, with some big exceptions in the 19th century until the line was firmly drawn, players of Black African descent from Major League Baseball and its affiliated Minor Leagues. Racial segregation in professional baseball was sometimes called a gentlemen's agreement, meaning a tacit understanding, as there was no written policy at the highest level of organized baseball, the major leagues. ... The color line was broken for good when Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers organization for the 1946 season. ..."
"... Reluctance of Boston Red Sox. The Boston Red Sox were the last major league team to integrate, holding out until 1959. This was allegedly due to the steadfast resistance provided by team owner Tom Yawkey. ... Even with the stands limited to management, Robinson was subjected to racial epithets. Robinson left the tryout humiliated. Robinson would later call Yawkey 'one of the most bigoted guys in baseball'. ... The NAACP issued charges of 'following an anti-Negro policy', and the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination announced a public hearing on racial bias against the Red Sox. ... When the African-American Tommy Harper, a popular former player and coach for Boston, then working as a minor league instructor, protested the policy and a story appeared in the Boston Globe, he was promptly fired. Harper sued the Red Sox for racial discrimination and his complaint was upheld on July 1, 1986. ..."
W - Baseball color line
Racism and America’s National Pastime: The Sad History of the Boston Red Sox
W - Tom Yawkey
Tom Yawkey | Ethics Alarms
'An undeniable legacy'
It’s time to banish the racist legacy of Tom Yawkey
Tommy Harper still haunted by time with Red Sox (Video)
NPR: Historian Illustrates Racial Intolerance In The Northeast In Post-War U.S. (Video)
Yawkey Way and the Red Sox’ racist history
CBS: David Price says he heard racist taunts from Red Sox fans at Fenway Park in 2016
The Red Sox: Racist
The David Ortiz bobblehead was too racist for Red Sox
Boston Red Sox Cancel 'Racist' David Ortiz Bobblehead Giveaway (Video)
David Price probably did hear racist taunts at Fenway Park